Four Provisions People Forget to Include in Their Estate Plan

Even if you’ve created an estate plan, are you sure you included everything you need to? There are certain provisions that people often forget to put in in a will or estate plan that can have a big impact on your family.

1. Alternate Beneficiaries

One of the most important things your estate plan should include is at least one alternative beneficiary in case the named beneficiary does not outlive you or is unable to claim under the will. If a will names a beneficiary who isn’t able to take possession of the property, your assets may pass as though you didn’t have a will at all. This means state law will determine who gets your property, not you. By providing an alternative beneficiary, you can make sure that the property goes where you want it to go.

2. Personal Possessions and Family Heirlooms

Not all heirlooms are worth a lot of money, but they may contain sentimental value. It is a good idea to be clear about which family members should get which items. You can write a list directly into your will, but this makes it difficult if you want to add items or delete items. A personal property memorandum is a separate document that details which friends and family members get what personal property. In some states, if the document is referenced in the will, it is legally binding. Even if the document is not legally binding, it is helpful to leave instructions for your heirs to avoid confusion and bickering.

3. Digital Assets

More and more we conduct business online. What happens to these online assets and accounts after you die? There are some steps you can take to help your family deal with your digital property. You should make a list of all of your online accounts, including e-mail, financial accounts, Facebook, Mint, and anywhere else you conduct business online. Include your username and password for each account.  Also, include access information for your digital devices, including smartphones and computers. And then you need to make sure the agent under your durable power of attorney and the personal representative named in your will have authority to deal with your online accounts.

4. Pets

Pets are beloved members of the family, but they can’t take care of themselves after you are gone. While you can’t leave property directly to a pet, you can name a caretaker in your will and leave that person money to care for the pet. Don’t forget to name an alternative beneficiary as well. If you want more security, in some states, you can set up a pet trust. With a pet trust, the trustee makes payments on a regular basis to your pet’s caregiver and pays for your pet’s needs as they come up. Contact your attorney to make sure your will and estate plan takes care of all your needs.

If you would like to create or update your estate plan, please call our office at (954) 256-9192 to set up a consultation.

Make Reviewing Your Estate Plan One of Your New Year’s Resolutions

The beginning of a new year is a good time to take a look at your estate plan to make sure it is up to date. Less than half of people actually have any estate planning documents in place and many of those people may have outdated documents. Documents that were created when your children were born may need updating 20, 30, or 40 years later, after your family and financial situation have changed entirely.

Estate planning is all about five essential documents. Here they are in order of importance:

1. The Durable Power of Attorney

The most important estate planning instrument for taking care of you and your family during life, as opposed to after death, is the durable power of attorney. This appoints one or more people you trust to step in and handle your finances and legal matters in the event of your incapacity, whether through illness, dementia, or an accident, and whether the incapacity is temporary or permanent. In the absence of a durable power of attorney, family members often must resort to going to court to be appointed conservator. This causes delay and expensive and unnecessary legal fees. It can also cause infighting by family members since you have not chosen who should step in.

While the concept of the durable power of attorney is simple – I appoint you as my agent for financial and legal matters in the event of incapacity – the devil, as always, is in the details. You have to make decisions about how many agents to appoint, whether to have alternates, whether to allow gifting, when the power of attorney should take effect, and whether to grant trust powers. Your attorney can help you with these details.

2. Health Care Proxy

Like the durable power of attorney, a health care agent steps in for you to make health care decisions when and if you become incapacitated. Unlike a durable power of attorney, it only takes effect when a doctor determines that you are unable to make decisions yourself and you can only appoint one individual to serve at a time. This is so that there will be a single point-person in dealing with medical professionals and no possibility of disagreement or stalemate between co-health care agents. You can and should name one or more alternates to the principal agent.

The main problem with health care proxies is that agents often have no idea or only a vague idea of what decision the patient would make in a particular circumstance. This can be addressed in one or more of these ways: a medical directive, a conversation between the potential patient and the agent, and a number of available workbooks (see below).  A general medical directive can be included with the health care proxy that says either (1) pull the plug if I’m in a vegetative state or irreversible coma, (2) balance the potential benefit and discomfort of any proposed treatment, or (3) do whatever you can to keep me alive.

Part of the problem with giving guidance to one’s agent is that it’s hard to predict situations that may occur and treatments that may be available. A number of organizations have developed workbooks to provide more detailed guidance than simply “keep me alive at all costs” or “do nothing.” They include: The Consumer’s Toolkit from the American Bar Association and Five Wishes from Aging with Dignity

3. HIPAA Release

In addition to a health care proxy, everyone needs a HIPAA release. The HIPAA law bars medical practitioners from releasing medical information to anyone, even to the spouse of a patient, without a release. You may well ask why a heath care proxy isn’t sufficient. There are a few answers: First, the health care proxy is “springing” in that it doesn’t get activated until or unless the patient is declared incapacitated. Second, while the health care proxy may only name one person at a time, you may well want a much broader group of people to communicate with medical providers. The agent may not always be available or may not be the first person on the scene.

All too often we have seen medical providers hide behind HIPAA to avoid having to deal with family members, sometimes to great harm to the patient. Especially in emergency situations, family members often have vital information about the patient, whether it’s the medications he is taking, allergies he may have, or his usual physical and mental health. HIPAA does not say that medical personnel cannot listen to this information, but it can be misconstrued in that fashion. It’s best to eliminate the whole issue by having a HIPAA release signed and available in case it’s ever needed.

4. Your Will

Your will says who will get your stuff when you die and who will be in charge of paying your bills, filing your tax returns, gathering your stuff and distributing it according to your instructions.

But here’s the irony: although the will gets all the recognition and there’s a whole set of laws governing the so-called “probate” process, these days most assets pass outside of probate. What the will says does not apply in many situations, including: joint accounts that pass to the other joint owners, retirement plans and life insurance policies that go to designated beneficiaries, and property in trust that passes to the beneficiaries named in the trust document. Only what you own in your own name alone passes under the will. In addition, while the will requires a lot of formality – two witnesses and a notary all signing at the same time – these other forms of passing on property usually require only the signature of the owner, or sometimes simply filling out a form online. 

That said, wills are important in terms of distributing your tangible personal property – stuff you can touch, such as furniture, jewelry, tools, clothing, boats, and cars. Your will appoints your executor or personal representative who is in charge of carrying out your wishes. This can be very important in avoiding squabbling among children. And your will can be used to appoint guardians for minor children. A will permits you to make charitable or other specific bequests. Finally your will can serve as a failsafe in case other means of passing on property fail.

5. Revocable Trust

The documents listed above may be enough, but you may also want a revocable trust, sometimes called a "living" trust. A trust is a construct under which one or more people, the trustees, manage property or investments for the benefit of one or more people, the beneficiaries. In a revocable trust, typically at the start the same person acts as the creator of the trust, the grantor or donor, as trustee and as beneficiary. Not much changes in their lives after they set up the trust. But it avoids probate by naming successor beneficiaries after the initial beneficiary passes away. While probate is not the worst thing that can happen to people, avoiding it can save heirs time and trouble.

But more importantly, a trust is a terrific tool for intervening in the event of incapacity. Financial institutions that are resistant to accepting durable powers of attorney appear to be more comfortable with trusts when a successor trustee is named. But it works even better when a parent names one or more adult children as co-trustees. The parent then does not give up any rights or autonomy, but permits the child to begin participating in financial management. Even if the child does nothing, he or she can view accounts and step in immediately if a problem arises. This can be especially important in the event of dementia or scams. Seniors are the primary victims of scams and having a trusted family member with access to accounts can help identify scams and permit intervention to limit their effect.

In addition to probate avoidance and incapacity protection, trusts are infinitely flexible in terms of how they are drafted. They can state any number of specifics on who receives property when, for instance, permitting its distribution over time to children and grandchildren. The options and opportunities for creativity are limitless

As you can see, most of these documents are about life not death. Of course, they’re still about planning for an unwanted event – incapacity of some sort. It’s like insurance to make sure that you and your family are taken care of if an unfortunate accident occurs.

Key Elder Law Numbers for 2017

Below are figures for 2017 that are frequently used in the elder law practice or are of interest to clients.

Medicaid Spousal Impoverishment Figures for 2017

The new minimum community spouse resource allowance (CSRA) is $24,180 and the maximum CSRA is $120,900. The maximum monthly maintenance needs allowance is $3,022.50. The minimum monthly maintenance needs allowance remains $2,002.50 ($2,502.50 for Alaska and $2,302.25 for Hawaii) until July 1, 2017.

Medicaid Home Equity Limits

Minimum: $560,000

Maximum: $840,000

Income Cap

The income cap for 2017 applicable in “income cap” states is $2,205 a month.

Gift and estate tax figures

Federal estate tax exemption: $5.49 million for individuals

Lifetime tax exclusion for gifts: $5.49 million

Generation-skipping transfer tax exemption: $5.49 million

The annual gift tax exclusion remains at $14,000.

Long-Term Care Premium Deductibility Limits for 2017

The Internal Revenue Service has announced the 2017 limitations on the deductibility of long-term care insurance premiums from income. Any premium amounts above these limits are not considered to be a medical expense.

Attained age before the close of the taxable year Maximum deduction
40 or less $410
More than 40 but not more than 50 $770
More than 50 but not more than 60 $1,530
More than 60 but not more than 70 $4,090
More than 70 $5,110

Benefits from per diem or indemnity policies, which pay a predetermined amount each day, are not included in income except amounts that exceed the beneficiary’s total qualified long-term care expenses or $360 per day (for 2017), whichever is greater.

For these and other inflation adjustments from the IRS, click here.

Medicare Premiums, Deductibles and Copayments for 2017

  • Part B premium: $109/month (was $104.90)
  • Part B premium for beneficiaries not “held harmless”: $134/month (was $121.80)
  • Part B deductible: $183 (was $166)
  • Part A deductible: $1,316 (was $1,288)
  • Co-payment for hospital stay days 61-90: $329/day (was $322)
  • Co-payment for hospital stay days 91 and beyond: $658/day (was $644)
  • Skilled nursing facility co-payment, days 21-100: $164.50/day (was $161)

Part B premiums for higher-income beneficiaries:

  • Individuals with annual incomes between $85,000 and $107,000 and married couples with annual incomes between $170,000 and $214,000 will pay a monthly premium of $187.50 (was $170.50).
  • Individuals with annual incomes between $107,000 and $160,000 and married couples with annual incomes between $214,000 and $320,000 will pay a monthly premium of $267.90 (was $243.60).
  • Individuals with annual incomes between $160,000 and $214,000 and married couples with annual incomes between $320,000 and $428,000 will pay a monthly premium of $348.30 (was $316.70).
  • Individuals with annual incomes of $214,000 or more and married couples with annual incomes of $428,000 or more will pay a monthly premium of $428.60 (was $389.80).

High-earner premiums differ for beneficiaries who are married but file a separate tax return from their spouse:

  • Those with incomes between $85,000 and $129,000 will pay a monthly premium of $348.30 (was $316.70).
  • Those with incomes greater than $129,000 will pay a monthly premium of $428.60 (was $389.80).

For “Medicare 2016 and 2017 costs at a glance,” click here.

Social Security Benefits for 2017

The new monthly federal Supplemental Security Income (SSI) payment standard is $735 for an individual and $1,103 for a couple.

Estimated average monthly Social Security retirement payment: $1,360 a month (was $1,341) for individuals and $2,260 (was $2,212) for couples

Maximum amount of earnings subject to Social Security taxation: $127,200 (was $118,500)

For a complete list of the 2017 Social Security figures, go to: https://www.ssa.gov/news/press/factsheets/colafacts2017.pdf

Four Steps to Take Right After an Alzheimer’s Diagnosis

If you or a loved one has been diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease, it is important to start planning immediately. There are several essential documents to help you once you become incapacitated, but if you don’t already have them in place, you need to act quickly after a diagnosis.

Having dementia does not mean an individual is not mentally competent to make planning decisions. The person signing documents must have “testamentary capacity,” which means he or she must understand the implications of what is being signed. Simply having a form of mental illness or disease does not mean that you automatically lack the required mental capacity. As long as you have periods of lucidity, you may still be competent to sign planning documents.

The following are some essential documents for someone diagnosed with dementia:

  • Power of Attorney. A power of attorney is the most important estate planning document for someone who has been diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease or some other form of dementia. A power of attorney allows you to appoint someone to make decisions on your behalf once you become incapacitated. Without a power of attorney, your family would be unable to pay your bills or manage your household without going to court and getting a guardianship, which can be a time-consuming and expensive process. For more information about powers of attorney, click here.
  • Health Care Proxy. A health care proxy, like a power of attorney, allows you to appoint someone else to act as your agent for medical decisions. It will ensure that your medical treatment instructions are carried out. In general, a health care proxy takes effect only when you require medical treatment and a physician determines that you are unable to communicate your wishes concerning treatment. For more information about health care proxies, click here.
  • Medical Directive or Living Will. Medical directives and living wills explain what type of care you would like if you are unable to direct your own care. A medical directive can include a health care proxy or it can be a separate document. It may contain directions to refuse or remove life support in the event you are in a coma or a vegetative state or it may provide instructions to use all efforts to keep you alive, no matter what the circumstances. For more information about medical directives, click here.
  • Will and Other Estate Planning Documents. In addition to making sure you have people to act for you and your wishes are clear, you should make sure your estate plan is up to date, or if you don’t have an estate plan, you should draw one up.  Your estate plan directs who will receive your property when you die. Once you are deemed incapacitated, you will no longer be able to create an estate plan. An estate plan usually consists of a will, and often a trust as well. Your will is your legally binding statement on who will receive your property when you die, while a trust is a mechanism for passing on your property outside of probate. For more information about estate planning, click here.

In addition to executing these documents, it is also important to create a plan for long-term care. Long-term care is expensive and draining for family members. Developing a plan now for what type of care you would like and how to pay for it will help your family later on. Your attorney can assist you in developing that plan and drafting any necessary documents.

If you would like further information about planning your estate please feel free to contact us at (954) 256-9192 or Jason@jajlawfirm.com.

How to Pass Your Home to Your Children Tax-Free

Giving your house to your children can have tax consequences, but there are ways to accomplish it tax-free. The best method to use will depend on your individual circumstances and needs.

Leave the house in your will

The simplest way to give your house to your children is to leave it to them in your will. As long as the total amount of your estate is under $5.45 million (in 2016), your estate will not pay estate taxes. In addition, when your children inherit property, it reduces the amount of capital gains taxes they will have to pay if they sell the property. Capital gains taxes are taxes paid on the difference between the “basis” in property and its selling price. If children inherit property, the property’s tax basis is “stepped up,” which means the basis would be the value of the property at the time of death, not the original cost of the property.

There are some downsides to this plan. Some states have a smaller estate tax exemption than the federal exemption, so leaving the property in your estate may cause your estate to owe the state taxes. Also, if you were to need Medicaid at any time before you died, Medicaid might put a lien on the property and the property might need to be sold after your death to repay Medicaid.

Gift the house

When you give anyone other than your spouse property valued at more than $14,000 ($28,000 per couple) in any one year, you have to file a gift tax form.  But you can gift a total of $5.45 million (in 2016) over your lifetime without incurring a gift tax. If your residence is worth less than $5.45 million and you give it to your children, you probably won’t have to pay any gift taxes, but you will still have to file a gift tax form.

The downside of gifting property is that it can have capital gains tax consequences for your children. If your children are planning to sell the home, they will likely face steep capital gains taxes. When property is gifted it does not receive a step up in basis, as it is when it is inherited. When you give away your property, the tax basis (or the original cost) of the property for the giver becomes the tax basis for the recipient.

In addition, gifting a house to your children can have consequences if you apply for Medicaid within five years of the gift. Under federal Medicaid law, if you transfer assets within five years before applying for Medicaid, you will be ineligible for Medicaid for a period of time (called a transfer penalty), depending on how much the assets were worth.

Sell the house

You can also sell your house to your children. If you sell the house for less than fair market value, the difference in price between the full market value and the sale price will be considered a gift. As discussed above, you can use the $14,000 annual gift tax exclusion as well as the $5.45 million lifetime gift tax exemption on this gift. The same issues with gifts discussed above will apply to this gift.

Another option is to sell the house at full market value, but hold a note on the property. The note should be in writing and include interest. You can then use the annual $14,000 gift tax exclusion to gift your child $14,000 each year to help make the payments on the note. This can be tricky and you should consult with your attorney to make sure this won’t cause tax problems.

Put the house in a trust

Another method of transferring property is to put it into a trust.  If you put it in an irrevocable trust that names your children as beneficiaries, it will no longer be a part of your estate when you die, so your estate will not pay any estate taxes on the transfer. The house will also not be subject to Medicaid estate recovery.

The downside is that once the house is in the irrevocable trust, it cannot be taken out again. Although it can be sold, the proceeds must remain in the trust. Similar to making a gift, if you apply for Medicaid within five years of transferring the house, you may be subject to a Medicaid penalty period.

Figuring out the best way to pass property to your children will depend on your individual circumstances. Talk to your elder law attorney to decide what method will work best for your family.

If you would like further information about planning your estate please feel free to contact us at (954) 256-9192 or Jason@jajlawfirm.com.

New Guides Help Those Appointed to Manage Someone Else’s Money

Have you been officially asked to manage someone else’s money? For example, have you been named as an agent under a power of attorney or appointed trustee of a trust? As our society ages, more and more people are being asked to take on these roles, but they come with both powers and responsibilities, and problems can arise.

If you’re not a lawyer (and even if you are), the responsibilities of these positions can seem daunting. Luckily, the federal Consumer Financial Protection Bureau – the only federal office dedicated to the financial health of Americans age 62 and over — recently released four guides for people who have been given the responsibility of managing money or property for someone else. The guides, which are free, are collectively called “Managing Someone Else’s Money.”

The Managing Someone Else’s Money guides are designed to help non-lawyers; they walk you through your new responsibilities, teach you how to protect the person in your care from financial exploitation, and give you links to additional resources. For example, the guides tell you, the agent, what to do to avoid problems with family and friends who think you are doing a bad job. The guides also help you coordinate with other agents who may have been assigned to work with you and any outside professionals whose help you may need (such as lawyers, brokers, and financial planners).

The guides include help for agents under a power of attorney, court-appointed guardians of property and conservators, trustees under a revocable living trust, and representative payees and VA fiduciaries (a person who manages someone else’s government benefit checks). All four types of agents are fiduciaries, which means they owe four special duties to the people for whom they are managing money or resources: the duty to act in the individual’s best interest, the duty to manage the individual’s money and property carefully, the duty to keep the individual’s money and property separate from their own, and the duty to keep good records. Every guide includes detailed information about these four duties.

If you have been assigned to be an agent for someone, that assignment should come with a document (power of attorney, trust document, court order, etc.) that will tell you what you can and cannot do. It is important to stay within the limits that document sets for you.

These four guides, which were developed for the Bureau by the American Bar Association Commission on Law and Aging, are not a substitute for legal counsel, but they can help keep you on the straight and narrow.

To download one or more of the guides, go to: http://www.consumerfinance.gov/blog/managing-someone-elses-money/

Understanding the Differences Between a Will and a Trust

Everyone has heard the terms “will” and “trust,” but not everyone knows the differences between the two. Both are useful estate planning devices that serve different purposes, and both can work together to create a complete estate plan.

One main difference between a will and a trust is that a will goes into effect only after you die, while a trust takes effect as soon as you create it. A will is a document that directs who will receive your property at your death and it appoints a legal representative to carry out your wishes. By contrast, a trust can be used to begin distributing property before death, at death or afterwards. A trust is a legal arrangement through which one person (or an institution, such as a bank or law firm), called a “trustee,” holds legal title to property for another person, called a “beneficiary.” A trust usually has two types of beneficiaries — one set that receives income from the trust during their lives and another set that receives whatever is left over after the first set of beneficiaries dies.

A will covers any property that is only in your name when you die. It does not cover property held in joint tenancy or in a trust. A trust, on the other hand, covers only property that has been transferred to the trust. In order for property to be included in a trust, it must be put in the name of the trust.

Another difference between a will and a trust is that a will passes through probate. That means a court oversees the administration of the will and ensures the will is valid and the property gets distributed the way the deceased wanted. A trust passes outside of probate, so a court does not need to oversee the process, which can save time and money. Unlike a will, which becomes part of the public record, a trust can remain private.

Wills and trusts each have their advantages and disadvantages. For example, a will allows you to name a guardian for children and to specify funeral arrangements, while a trust does not. On the other hand, a trust can be used to plan for disability or to provide savings on taxes. Your elder law attorney can tell you how best to use a will and a trust in your estate plan.

If you would like further information about planning your estate or would like to schedule a free consultation please contact the Law Office of Jason A. Jenkins, P.A. at (954) 256-9192 or Jason@jajlawfirm.com.

New Jersey Joins Florida in Ruling that Medicaid Planning by Non-Lawyers is the Unauthorized Practice of Law

Joining the states of Florida, Ohio, and Tennessee, the Supreme Court of New Jersey has found that non-lawyers who apply the law to a Medicaid applicant’s specific circumstances are engaging in the unauthorized practice of law.

The state Supreme Court had received complaints that non-lawyers retained by families or nursing homes to assist with the Medicaid application process were providing erroneous or incomplete law-related advice, and a state attorney ethics hotline had received reports that non-lawyers have charged “clients” large sums of money for faulty Medicaid-planning legal assistance, causing the elderly victims significant financial loss.

Asked by the state Supreme Court for an opinion specifying what activities non-lawyers may engage in and what activities are the unauthorized practice of law, the Committee on the Unauthorized Practice of Law has concluded that while non-lawyer Medicaid advisors may provide limited services, “[a]pplying the law to an individual’s specific circumstances generally is the ‘practice of law.’ A Medicaid advisor or Application Assistor may provide information on insurance programs and coverage options; help individuals complete the application or renewal; help them with gathering and providing required documentation; assist in counting income and assets; submit the application to the agency; and assist with communication between the agency and the individual. But the advisor may not provide legal advice on strategies to become eligible for Medicaid benefits, including advice on spending down resources, tax implications, guardianships, sale or transfer of assets, creation of trusts or service contracts, and the like.”

If you would like further information about Medicaid Planning or would like to schedule a free consultation please contact the Law Office of Jason A. Jenkins, P.A. at (954) 256-9192 or Jason@jajlawfirm.com.

SSI and Special Needs Trusts

The contents of most trusts you create for yourself will be considered available to you in determining your eligibility for SSI. On the other hand, assets of most trusts that someone else creates and names you as a beneficiary of will not be considered to belong to you for purposes of determining your SSI eligibility. If you created and funded an irrevocable trust for your own benefit prior to January 1, 2000, it will be grandfathered, and in most cases its assets will not be considered to belong to you.

Trusts designed to aid a person with special needs are commonly known as “special needs trusts.”  There are three main types of special needs trusts: the first-party trust, the third-party trust, and the pooled trust. All three name the person with special needs as the beneficiary, but they differ in several significant ways.

A first-party trust is designed to hold a SSI beneficiary’s own assets, but it must be created by the beneficiary’s parent or grandparent, or by a court, even though the beneficiary’s assets are going to fund the trust. While the beneficiary is living, the funds in the trust are used for his benefit, and when he dies, any assets remaining in the trust are used to reimburse the government for the cost of his medical care. These trusts are especially useful for beneficiaries who are receiving SSI and come into large amounts of money, because the trust allows the beneficiary to retain his benefits while still being able to use his own funds when necessary.

The third-party special needs trust is most often used by parents and other family members to assist a person with special needs. These trusts can hold any kind of asset imaginable belonging to the family member or other individual, including a house, stocks and bonds, and other types of investments. The third-party trust functions like a first-party special needs trust in that the assets held in the trust do not affect an SSI beneficiary’s access to benefits and the funds can be used to pay for the beneficiary’s supplemental needs beyond those covered by government benefits. But a third-party special needs trust does not contain the “payback” provision found in first-party trusts. This means that when the beneficiary with special needs dies, any funds remaining in her trust can pass to other family members, or to charity, without having to be used to reimburse the government.

A pooled trust is an alternative to the first-party special needs trust.  Essentially, a charity sets up these trusts that allow beneficiaries to pool their resources for investment purposes, while still maintaining separate accounts for each beneficiary’s needs. When the beneficiary dies, the funds remaining in her account reimburse the government for her care, but a portion also goes towards the non-profit organization responsible for managing the trust.

Given the complexity of this field, any trust should be drafted by an experienced attorney knowledgeable about SSI matters.

If you would like further information about special needs trusts and SSI please contact the Law Office of Jason A. Jenkins, P.A. at (954) 256-9192 or Jason@jajlawfirm.com.

Key Elder Law Numbers for 2016

Below are figures for 2016 that are frequently used in the elder law practice or are of interest to clients.

Medicaid Spousal Impoverishment Figures for 2016

These figurs are unchanged from 2015.  The minimum community spouse resource allowance (CSRA) is $23,844 and the maximum CSRA remains $119,220. The maximum monthly maintenance needs allowance is $2,980.50. The minimum monthly maintenance needs allowance will be $1,991.25 ($2,490 for Alaska and $2,291.25 for Hawaii) until July 1, 2016.

Medicaid Home Equity Limits

Also no change from 2015: Minimum: $552,000; Maximum: $828,000

For the CMS document announcing the 2016 impoverishment and home equity figures, click here.

Income Cap

The income cap for 2016 applicable in “income cap” states remains $2,199 a month.

Gift and estate tax figures

Federal estate tax exemption: $5.45 million for individuals

Lifetime tax exclusion for gifts: $5.45 million

Generation-skipping transfer tax exemption: $5.45 million

The annual gift tax exclusion remains at $14,000.

Long-Term Care Premium Deductibility Limits for 2016

The Internal Revenue Service has announced the 2016 limitations on the deductibility of long-term care insurance premiums from taxes. Any premium amounts above these limits are not considered to be a medical expense.

Attained age before the close of the taxable year Maximum deduction
40 or less $390
More than 40 but not more than 50 $730
More than 50 but not more than 60 $1,460
More than 60 but not more than 70 $3,900
More than 70 $4,870

Benefits from per diem or indemnity policies, which pay a predetermined amount each day, are not included in income except amounts that exceed the beneficiary’s total qualified long-term care expenses or $340 per day (for 2016), whichever is greater.

For these and other inflation adjustments from the IRS, click here.

Medicare Premiums, Deductibles and Copayments for 2016

  • Part B premium: $104.90/month (unchanged)
  • Part B premium for beneficiaries not “held harmless”: $121.80
  • Part B deductible: $147 (unchanged)
  • Part B deductible for beneficiaries not “held harmless”: $166
  • Part A deductible: $1,288 (was $1,260)
  • Co-payment for hospital stay days 61-90: $322/day (was $31)
  • Co-payment for hospital stay days 91 and beyond: $644/day (was $630)
  • Skilled nursing facility co-payment, days 21-100: $161/day (was $157.50)

Premiums for higher-income beneficiaries:

  • Individuals with annual incomes between $85,000 and $107,000 and married couples with annual incomes between $170,000 and $214,000 will pay a monthly premium of$170.50 (was $146.90).
  • Individuals with annual incomes between $107,000 and $160,000 and married couples with annual incomes between $214,000 and $320,000 will pay a monthly premium of$243.60 (was $209.80).
  • Individuals with annual incomes between $160,000 and $214,000 and married couples with annual incomes between $320,000 and $428,000 will pay a monthly premium of$316.70 (was $272.70).
  • Individuals with annual incomes of $214,000 or more and married couples with annual incomes of $428,000 or more will pay a monthly premium of $389.80 (was $335.70).

Rates differ for beneficiaries who are married but file a separate tax return from their spouse:

  • Those with incomes between $85,000 and $129,000 will pay a monthly premium of$316.70 (was $272.70).
  • Those with incomes greater than $129,000 will pay a monthly premium of$389.80 (was $335.70).

For “Medicare 2016 costs at a glance,” click here.

Social Security Benefits for 2016

Most Social Security figures remain unchanged.  The monthly federal Supplemental Security Income (SSI) payment standard stays at $733 for an individual and $1,100 for a couple.

Estimated average monthly Social Security retirement payment: $1,341 a month (was $1,328) for individuals and $2,212 (was $2,176) for couples

Maximum amount of earnings subject to Social Security taxation: $118,500 (unchanged)

For a complete list of the 2016 Social Security figures, go to: https://www.socialsecurity.gov/news/press/factsheets/colafacts2016.html

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